As a traveller, I’ve been fortunate to experience a plethora of cultures and cuisines from around the world, and one thing that never fails to intrigue me is the diversity of coffee types and traditions. Coffee is more than just a beverage; it embodies a rich cultural history, holds unique flavor profiles, and varies from region to region. 

Coffee is an extremely popular beverage made from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of the Coffea plant. It is widely consumed all over the world, with approximately 2.25 billion cups consumed daily. The unique taste, aroma, and energizing effect of coffee are some of the key reasons behind its popularity.

The cultural significance of coffee has also contributed to its popularity. Coffee shops and cafes have become important socializing spots for people to work, relax, and socialize. 

In this article, join me on a journey to explore different types of coffees and their distinctive characteristics – from bold espressos to creamy lattes and everything in between. Whether you’re a coffee enthusiast or simply curious about coffee culture, this guide will give you a better understanding of the diverse coffee experiences across the globe. 

So, grab a cup of your favorite brew and let’s dive in!

When it comes to coffee, there are two primary branches that it can be divided into espresso-based and filter-based. 

Espresso-based Coffees

A Brief History of Espresso

Espresso is a type of coffee that is made by forcing hot water through finely ground coffee beans under high pressure, resulting in a concentrated and bold flavor. The name “espresso” comes from the Italian word “esprimere,” which means “to express” or “to squeeze out.”

The history of espresso can be traced back to the early 20th century in Italy, where it was invented as a way to make coffee quickly for busy commuters. In 1901, Italian inventor Luigi Bezzera created the first espresso machine, which used steam to force water through the coffee grounds. This early version of the espresso machine was bulky and inefficient, but it laid the foundation for the modern espresso machines that we use today.

Over time, the design of the espresso machine was improved, and in the 1930s, Italian company La Pavoni developed the first commercial espresso machine, which could make multiple shots of espresso at once. Espresso quickly became popular in Italy and spread throughout Europe, and by the 1950s, espresso machines had made their way to the United States and other parts of the world.

Today, espresso is a staple of coffee culture around the world, and it is the foundation for many popular coffee drinks, such as cappuccinos, lattes, and Americanos. The art of making the perfect espresso shot has become a skill in itself, with baristas and coffee aficionados striving to achieve the perfect balance of crema, aroma, and flavor.

Types of Espresso-based Coffees

Espresso Shot

Espresso shot is a small serving of coffee that is made by forcing hot water through finely ground, compacted coffee beans using an espresso machine. The result is a concentrated and rich shot of coffee with a crema on top.

Espresso shots are typically served in small demitasse cups, and can be enjoyed on their own or used as a base for other espresso-based drinks. The standard serving size for an espresso shot is about 1 ounce, but some specialty coffee shops may offer larger or smaller sizes depending on the preference of the customer.

The flavor of an espresso shot can vary depending on the type of coffee bean used, the roast level, and the brewing process. A well-made espresso shot should have a strong and bold flavor, with a balance of sweetness and bitterness.

Espresso shots are also commonly used as a building block for other popular coffee drinks such as cappuccinos, lattes, and Americanos. They can also be served as a doppio, which is a double shot of espresso that contains twice the amount of coffee and is served in a slightly larger cup. Overall, espresso shots are a staple in the coffee world and a must-try for any coffee lover.


Macchiato is made by adding a small amount of steamed milk to a shot of espresso. The term “macchiato” comes from the Italian word “macchiare,” which means “to stain” or “to mark.” This refers to the way the milk “stains” or “marks” the espresso, creating a layered drink with a distinct appearance.

There are two main types of macchiatos: the traditional macchiato and the latte macchiato. The traditional macchiato is also known as an espresso macchiato, and it is made by adding a small amount of steamed milk (usually about a teaspoon) to a single shot of espresso. This results in a strong, concentrated coffee with a small amount of milk foam on top.

On the other hand, the latte macchiato is made by adding a larger amount of steamed milk to a single shot of espresso. The milk is poured into the glass first, and then the espresso is added on top, creating a layered drink with the espresso “staining” or “marking” the milk. The latte macchiato is a milder drink compared to the traditional macchiato, and it has a smoother, creamier texture due to the added milk.

Overall, macchiatos are a popular choice for those who prefer a strong coffee with a hint of milk flavor. The traditional macchiato is a great choice for those who enjoy a bold, concentrated espresso, while the latte macchiato is perfect for those who prefer a milder, creamier drink.


An Americano is made by adding hot water to a shot of espresso. 

The origin of the Americano can be traced back to World War II, when American soldiers stationed in Italy would dilute their espresso shots with hot water in order to create a coffee that was more similar to what they were used to drinking back home. This practice became known as the “Americano,” and the name has stuck ever since.

To make an Americano, a shot of espresso is pulled using an espresso machine, and then hot water is added to the espresso in a ratio of about 1:2 or 1:3, depending on the desired strength. The result is a coffee that is less intense than a straight espresso shot, but still has a bold flavor and a velvety crema on top.

Some variations of the Americano include adding a splash of milk or a flavored syrup, although traditionalists prefer to enjoy it black. Americanos are a popular choice for those who enjoy the strength of espresso but find it too intense to drink on its own, or for those who prefer a larger volume of coffee.


Cappuccino is made with equal parts espresso, steamed milk, and milk foam. The drink’s name is believed to come from the color of the robes worn by the Capuchin monks, which is a similar shade to the light brown foam that tops the cappuccino.

To make a cappuccino, a shot of espresso is pulled using an espresso machine, and then steamed milk is added in equal parts to the espresso. The milk is then topped with a layer of foam, which is created by aerating the milk with steam. The result is a creamy, frothy coffee with a velvety texture.

Cappuccinos can be customized in many ways, such as adding syrups or toppings like cinnamon or cocoa powder. Some variations of cappuccino include the dry cappuccino, which has more foam and less milk, and the wet cappuccino, which has more milk and less foam.

Cappuccinos are a popular choice for coffee lovers who enjoy a balanced and creamy coffee, and they are often enjoyed with a pastry or other breakfast food.


The name “latte” means “milk” in Italian, and the drink is named after the large amount of milk that is added to the espresso shot.

To make a latte, a shot of espresso is pulled using an espresso machine and then steamed milk is added, typically in a ratio of 1:3 espresso to milk. The milk is steamed to create a smooth and velvety texture, and then poured over the espresso shot. The drink is often topped with a small amount of milk foam or latte art, which is created by pouring the steamed milk in a specific way to create a design on top of the drink.

Lattes can be customized in many ways, such as adding syrups or flavorings like vanilla or caramel. Non-dairy milks like soy or almond milk can also be used for those who are lactose intolerant or vegan.

Lattes are a popular choice for coffee drinkers who enjoy a creamy and smooth coffee with a balanced flavor. They are often enjoyed as a morning or afternoon pick-me-up and can be accompanied by a pastry or snack. The popularity of lattes has led to many variations of the drink, such as the iced latte or the flavored latte.

Flat White

Believed to have originated in Australia or New Zealand, it is made by pouring a double shot of espresso into a small cup or glass, and then topping it off with steamed milk that has been frothed to create a velvety microfoam.

The key difference between a flat white and a latte is the texture of the milk. In a flat white, the steamed milk is stretched to create a microfoam that is silky and smooth, with tiny bubbles that create a velvety texture. In contrast, a latte has a layer of frothed milk on top, which gives it a lighter, more airy texture.

Another difference between a flat white and a latte is the ratio of espresso to milk. A flat white typically has a higher proportion of espresso to milk than a latte, resulting in a bolder, stronger flavor.

Flat whites are often preferred by coffee enthusiasts who want a strong espresso flavor but also enjoy the added creaminess and texture of the steamed milk. They have gained popularity in recent years and are now a staple on the menus of many coffee shops and cafes around the world.


Mocha, also known as a mochaccino, is typically made with espresso, steamed milk, and chocolate syrup or powder. The drink originated in Italy and was named after the city of Mocha, a port in Yemen where coffee beans were shipped from Africa to Europe.

To make a mocha, a shot of espresso is first pulled into a cup. Then, a mixture of steamed milk and chocolate syrup or powder is added to the espresso, creating a creamy and sweet flavor. The drink is often topped with whipped cream and a sprinkle of cocoa powder or chocolate shavings.

Mochas are a popular choice for those who enjoy the combination of coffee and chocolate. They can be customized by adjusting the amount of chocolate syrup or powder used, as well as the type of milk (such as almond or oat milk) used to make the drink. Some variations of the drink also include additional flavors such as caramel or hazelnut syrup.

Filter Coffees

Definition of Filter Coffee

Filter coffee, also known as drip coffee, is a type of coffee made by pouring hot water over ground coffee beans contained in a filter. The water then slowly drips through the coffee grounds and filter into a carafe or cup below. The filter process results in a smoother, less concentrated coffee compared to espresso-based coffee. Filter coffee is typically served black, with cream, or with milk and sugar to taste. 

French Press

A French press, also known as a press pot or plunger pot, is a manual coffee brewing device that produces coffee by steeping coarsely ground coffee beans in hot water and then pressing the brewed coffee through a filter with a plunger. The French press method allows for full immersion and extraction of the coffee, resulting in a rich and flavorful cup of coffee. French presses come in various sizes and materials, with glass and stainless steel being the most common. 

They are a popular choice for those who enjoy a full-bodied and strong cup of coffee, as well as for those who appreciate the ritual of handcrafted coffee brewing. French presses require more attention and effort than automatic coffee makers, but the results are often worth the extra effort.


Pour-over coffee is a manual coffee brewing method that involves pouring hot water over ground coffee beans in a filter, allowing the coffee to drip through the filter and into a cup or carafe below. This method provides precise control over the coffee brewing process, allowing the brewer to adjust the water temperature, flow rate, and brewing time to achieve the desired flavor profile. Pour-over coffee is known for its clean and bright taste, as the coffee grounds are evenly and thoroughly saturated with water, resulting in a flavorful and aromatic cup of coffee. Pour-over coffee can be made using various materials, such as ceramic, glass, or metal, and the filters can be made of paper or metal mesh. Pour-over brewing requires some skill and attention to detail, but the end result is a delicious cup of coffee that is worth the effort.


The Aeropress is a brewing device that was invented in 2005 by Alan Adler, a Stanford University engineering professor. The Aeropress works by using air pressure to force hot water through finely ground coffee beans and a paper or metal filter, resulting in a smooth and rich cup of coffee. The device consists of two main components: a plunger and a chamber. Coffee grounds are placed in the chamber, hot water is poured over the grounds, and then the plunger is used to apply pressure and push the brewed coffee through the filter and into a cup. The Aeropress is also popular among coffee enthusiasts for its ease of use, portability, and low cost.


Chemex filtered coffee is a method of preparing filter coffee using a special type of glass coffee maker known as the Chemex. The Chemex is a pour-over coffee maker that was invented in 1941 by Peter Schlumbohm, a German chemist. It consists of a glass vessel in an hourglass shape, with a narrow neck and a wood collar and tie that is held in place by a leather strap.

To make Chemex filtered coffee, a special type of filter paper is used, which is thicker than regular filter paper and removes more of the coffee oils and sediment. The coffee is ground slightly coarser than for drip coffee and the filter paper is placed in the top of the Chemex. The ground coffee is added to the filter, and hot water is poured over the coffee in a slow, circular motion. The coffee then drips through the filter and into the Chemex, creating a clean, smooth cup of coffee with a bright, crisp flavor.

Chemex filtered coffee is known for its purity and clarity of flavor, as the thick filter paper removes much of the coffee oils and sediment that can create a bitter or cloudy taste. The slow and precise pouring method also allows for a more controlled and consistent extraction of the coffee, resulting in a more balanced cup.

Major Regional Coffees

African Coffees

Ethiopian Coffee

Ethiopia is considered the birthplace of coffee, and coffee has been an integral part of Ethiopian culture for centuries. It is said that the coffee plant, Coffea arabica, originated in the southwestern region of Ethiopia, and the country continues to be one of the world’s top producers of high-quality coffee.

In Ethiopia, coffee is more than just a beverage – it is a cultural tradition that involves a ceremonial preparation process. The coffee ceremony, known as “Buna,” is an important social event in Ethiopian culture, often used to mark important occasions such as weddings or births. The coffee ceremony involves roasting the coffee beans over an open flame, grinding the beans by hand, and brewing the coffee in a traditional clay pot called a “jebena.” The coffee is then served in small cups and accompanied by snacks such as roasted barley or popcorn.

Ethiopian coffee is known for its unique flavor profile, which can vary depending on the region where the coffee is grown. Ethiopian coffees are often described as having a fruity or floral aroma, with a bright acidity and a complex flavor that includes notes of berries, citrus, and chocolate.

Some of the most popular varieties of Ethiopian coffee include Yirgacheffe, Sidamo, and Harrar. Yirgacheffe coffee is known for its bright acidity and floral notes, while Sidamo coffee has a more complex flavor profile with notes of citrus and chocolate. Harrar coffee is known for its rich, full-bodied flavor with notes of berries and spice.

Kenyan Coffee

The coffee is grown in the high altitudes of Mount Kenya and the Aberdare Mountains, which provide the ideal growing conditions for the Arabica coffee plant.

Kenyan coffee is known for its bright acidity, full body, and fruity flavor notes. It is often described as having a wine-like taste with hints of black currant and citrus. The coffee beans are typically handpicked and wet-processed to ensure their high quality and distinct flavor profile.

Kenyan coffee is highly sought after by coffee connoisseurs around the world due to its unique taste and the strict regulations surrounding its production. The Kenyan government has put in place strict standards for the production and grading of coffee beans, ensuring that only the highest quality beans are exported.

In addition to its flavor profile, Kenyan coffee is also valued for its economic impact on the country. The coffee industry is a major source of employment and income for many Kenyan farmers and has helped to drive economic growth in the country.

Rwandan Coffee

Rwandan coffee is known for its bright acidity, floral aroma, and fruity notes. Rwanda is a small country in East Africa, and coffee production has become a significant part of its economy. 

Most of the coffee produced in Rwanda is of the Bourbon variety, which is known for its sweetness and bright acidity. The beans are typically wet-processed, which involves removing the pulp from the beans and fermenting them to remove the mucilage layer. This process gives the coffee a cleaner and brighter taste.

Rwandan coffee is often described as having a citrusy, berry-like flavor with floral and tea-like notes. The coffee is grown at high altitudes, which contributes to its unique flavor profile. Some of the most popular regions for Rwandan coffee include the western regions of Lake Kivu and the southern region of Huye.

South American Coffees

Colombian Coffee

Colombian coffee is one of the most well-known and popular types of coffee in the world. It is known for its mild, well-balanced flavor and pleasant acidity. Colombian coffee is grown in the mountainous regions of Colombia, which has a unique climate and geography that make it an ideal place for coffee cultivation.

Colombia has been producing coffee since the early 1800s, and coffee has played a significant role in the country’s economy and culture ever since. Colombian coffee is typically grown on small family farms, and the coffee production process is often done by hand, from picking the coffee cherries to drying the beans.

Colombian coffee is often described as having a medium body, a bright acidity, and notes of caramel, chocolate, and citrus. It is versatile and can be used in a variety of brewing methods, from drip coffee to espresso. Colombian coffee is also commonly used as a base for blended coffees, as its mild flavor profile can complement and balance other bolder flavors.

Brazilian Coffee

Brazil is the largest coffee producing country in the world and produces a wide range of coffee varieties. The most popular Brazilian coffee variety is Santos, which is named after the port through which it is exported. Santos coffee is known for its mild flavor and low acidity, making it a popular choice for blending with other coffee varieties. Another popular Brazilian coffee is Bourbon Santos, which is grown in the high altitudes of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais. Bourbon Santos has a sweet, fruity flavor with a smooth finish.

In addition to Santos and Bourbon Santos, Brazil produces several other coffee varieties, such as Catuai, Mundo Novo, and Icatu. These coffees have unique flavor profiles and are often used in specialty coffee blends. Overall, Brazilian coffee is known for its mild flavor and low acidity, making it a popular choice for coffee drinkers around the world.

Peruvian Coffee

Peruvian coffee is known for its bright acidity, floral notes, and subtle sweetness. The country’s coffee production is relatively small compared to other major coffee-producing nations, but its high-quality beans have gained recognition in recent years. Peruvian coffee is grown primarily in the high-altitude regions of the Andes mountains, where the cooler temperatures and volcanic soil create optimal growing conditions. The most popular varieties of Peruvian coffee include Typica, Bourbon, and Caturra.

Asian Coffees

Sumatran Coffee

Sumatran coffee is a type of coffee that is grown on the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. It is known for its unique and complex flavor profile, with notes of earthiness, spice, and a hint of sweetness. Sumatran coffee is grown using the wet-hulled method, which involves removing the outer skin of the coffee cherry before drying, resulting in a unique flavor and distinct characteristics. The most popular varieties of Sumatran coffee include Mandheling and Lintong, which are known for their full-bodied flavor and low acidity. Sumatran coffee is often used in blends to add depth and complexity to the flavor profile. It is a favorite among coffee enthusiasts and is highly sought after for its unique taste.

Vietnamese Coffee

The coffee is made by brewing a small amount of strong coffee with a metal filter, called a phin, which is placed on top of a cup containing sweetened condensed milk. The hot coffee drips through the filter and mixes with the sweetened condensed milk, resulting in a rich and sweet flavor.

Vietnamese coffee is typically made with robusta beans, which are known for their strong and bold flavor, as well as their high caffeine content. The use of sweetened condensed milk in Vietnamese coffee is a result of the scarcity of fresh milk in Vietnam during the French colonial period. 

Vietnamese coffee can be enjoyed hot or iced and is often served with a small glass of iced water to balance out the sweetness of the condensed milk. It can also be made with variations, such as using coconut milk instead of condensed milk or adding spices like cinnamon or cardamom. 

Vietnamese coffee has gained popularity around the world in recent years and is now a popular specialty coffee option in many cafes and restaurants.

Indian Coffee

India is one of the world’s largest producers of coffee, with coffee plantations located mainly in the southern states of Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. The coffee produced in India is known for its mild and mellow flavor with hints of spice and chocolate.

There are two main types of coffee grown in India: Arabica and Robusta. Arabica beans are grown in the higher elevations of the Western Ghats mountain range, while Robusta beans are grown in the lower elevations.

One of the unique methods of preparing coffee in India is through the use of a traditional filter called a “Madras filter”. This filter is made of stainless steel and consists of two cylindrical cups, one with small perforations and the other with a solid base. The coffee grounds are placed in the perforated cup, and hot water is poured over them. The coffee then drips into the second cup, which is used to serve the coffee.

Another popular Indian coffee preparation is “Kaapi”, which is a type of strong, sweetened coffee made with a blend of coffee and chicory. It is traditionally served in a stainless steel tumbler and a saucer, with the coffee repeatedly poured back and forth between the two to create a frothy layer on top. Kaapi is a staple beverage in South Indian households and is often consumed with breakfast or as an afternoon pick-me-up.

Turkish Coffee

Turkish coffee is a traditional coffee preparation method that originated in Turkey and is widely popular in the Middle East, Balkans, and North Africa. It is made by finely grinding coffee beans into a powder and then brewing it in a cezve, a small copper or brass pot. The coffee is usually brewed with water and sugar, and sometimes with spices such as cardamom, cloves, or cinnamon, depending on the region and personal preference.

The brewing process involves heating the coffee and water mixture in the cezve over low heat until the sugar dissolves and the coffee starts to foam. The coffee is then poured into small cups, along with some of the foam, and served with a glass of water to cleanse the palate.

Turkish coffee has a strong, bold flavor and a thick, velvety texture due to the coffee particles that remain in the cup after brewing. It is usually served with Turkish delight or other sweets, and is often enjoyed as part of a social gathering or as an after-meal drink.

Factors Affecting the Taste of Coffee

Type of Coffee Bean

The type of coffee bean used to make coffee is one of the most important factors that affect the taste of coffee. There are two main species of coffee beans: Arabica and Robusta. Arabica beans are considered to be of higher quality and are more expensive, while Robusta beans are generally cheaper and have a stronger, more bitter taste.

Arabica beans are known for their delicate, nuanced flavors and are often described as having floral or fruity notes. They are grown at higher altitudes and in cooler climates, which results in a slower maturation process and a more complex flavor profile. Arabica beans also have lower caffeine content than Robusta beans.

Robusta beans, on the other hand, are known for their strong, bitter taste and higher caffeine content. They are easier to grow and more resistant to pests and diseases than Arabica beans, which makes them cheaper to produce. Robusta beans are often used in blends to add body and crema to the coffee, but they are not typically used on their own for specialty coffee drinks.

In addition to the species of the coffee bean, the variety of the bean also plays a role in the taste of the coffee. Different varieties of Arabica beans, for example, can have distinct flavor profiles depending on factors such as where they are grown and the processing methods used.

Roasting Level

Roasting level is another important factor that affects the taste of coffee. The roasting process is what gives coffee beans their distinct flavor and aroma, and it is important to consider the roasting level when choosing a coffee.

Coffee beans are roasted to bring out their natural flavors and aromas. The degree of roasting can significantly impact the taste of the coffee, as it affects the chemical changes that take place during the roasting process.

There are three main roasting levels: light, medium, and dark. Each level has a distinct flavor profile and aroma.

Light roast coffee is roasted for a shorter time and at lower temperatures than other roasts. It has a light brown color and a subtle flavor profile, with a bright and acidic taste that highlights the coffee’s natural flavors. Light roast coffee typically has a higher caffeine content than other roasts.

Medium roast coffee is roasted for a longer time than light roast coffee, resulting in a medium brown color and a fuller body. It has a more balanced flavor profile, with a slightly sweeter taste and a lower acidity level. Medium roast coffee is the most popular roast level in the United States.

Dark roast coffee is roasted for the longest time and at the highest temperatures, resulting in a dark brown color and a bold and intense flavor. It has a smoky and bitter taste, with a lower acidity level and a fuller body. Dark roast coffee typically has a lower caffeine content than light or medium roast coffee.

Different types of coffee beans will have different ideal roasting levels to bring out their best flavor. For example, a medium roast is often recommended for Brazilian coffee beans, while Ethiopian beans are often roasted to a light or medium level to preserve their fruity and floral notes.

In general, lighter roasts are better for showcasing the unique flavor notes of a particular coffee bean, while darker roasts are better for creating a consistent, bold flavor profile. It’s important to experiment with different roasting levels to find the one that best suits your taste preferences.

Brewing Method

Different brewing methods extract different flavors and aromas from the coffee beans, resulting in unique taste profiles.

Here are some of the most popular brewing methods and how they affect the taste of coffee :

Drip brewing: Drip brewing is one of the most common brewing methods, and it involves pouring hot water over coffee grounds in a filter. This method produces a clean and smooth taste with a medium body and mild acidity.

French press: French press brewing involves steeping coffee grounds in hot water and pressing the plunger to separate the coffee from the grounds. This method produces a full-bodied coffee with a rich and bold taste, as the metal filter allows more of the coffee’s natural oils to remain in the cup.

Espresso: Espresso is a strong and concentrated coffee that is brewed by forcing hot water through finely ground coffee beans. Espresso has a rich and creamy texture with a strong and bold taste.

Pour-over: Pour-over brewing involves pouring hot water over coffee grounds in a filter, allowing the water to drip slowly through the grounds. This method produces a clean and bright taste with a medium body and mild acidity.

Cold brew: Cold brew coffee is brewed by steeping coffee grounds in cold water for several hours. This method produces a smooth and sweet taste with a low acidity level.

Water Quality

Coffee is mostly made up of water, so the type and quality of water used in brewing coffee can have a significant impact on the flavor profile.

Here are some ways in which water quality can affect the taste of coffee:

Hard water: Hard water contains high levels of minerals such as calcium and magnesium, which can leave behind a residue in coffee machines and impact the taste of the coffee. Hard water can also make coffee taste bitter and overly acidic.

Soft water: Soft water, on the other hand, lacks the minerals present in hard water. Soft water can result in a flat-tasting coffee with a lack of complexity and body.

Chlorine and other contaminants: Water that contains chlorine or other contaminants can impact the taste of coffee, leaving behind an unpleasant aftertaste.

pH levels: The pH level of water can also impact the taste of coffee. Water with a pH level that is too high or too low can result in a sour or bitter taste.

To ensure the best possible taste of coffee, it is important to use clean and filtered water with a balanced mineral content. The Specialty Coffee Association (SCA) recommends using water with a total dissolved solids (TDS) reading of 150 mg/L to 250 mg/L and a pH level between 6.5 and 7.5. By using high-quality water, coffee lovers can achieve a consistent and enjoyable taste experience with every cup of coffee.

Serving Temperature

Different types of coffee taste best at different temperatures, so serving coffee at the right temperature is important to enhance its flavor.

Here are some ways in which serving temperature can affect the taste of coffee:

Hotter temperatures: Hotter coffee temperatures can accentuate the bitterness and acidity in coffee. However, some coffee enthusiasts prefer hotter temperatures as it can bring out the complexity and aroma of the coffee.

Cooler temperatures: Cooler coffee temperatures can tone down the bitterness and acidity in coffee, making it smoother and easier to drink. However, serving coffee too cold can also result in a flat and lifeless taste.

Ideal temperatures: The ideal serving temperature for coffee can vary depending on the type of coffee. For example, espresso is best served between 155°F and 165°F (68°C and 74°C), while drip coffee is best served between 195°F and 205°F (90°C and 96°C). Serving coffee at the ideal temperature can help to highlight the unique flavor profile of the coffee.

In addition to the type of coffee, the serving vessel can also impact the temperature of coffee. Ceramic or glass mugs tend to retain heat better than paper cups, so coffee served in ceramic or glass mugs may stay hotter for longer.

References and sources:

The History of Coffee, NCA

The Caffeinated History of Coffee, PBS

The Coffee Tree—Genetic Diversity and Origin, Science Direct

The Effect of Bean Origin and Temperature on Grinding Roasted Coffee, Nature

Coffee, Harvard School of Public Health


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